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some painting methods and effects
click on images for magnified detail views of effects in
'wash', 'scumble', 'impasto' and 'sgraffito'



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  After the Picnic   
  
painting above
details below


wash
is a technical term for a layer of dilute transparent colour spread evenly over a broad area so as to show no brush marks.

Like a glaze colour effect. Layers of colour wash may be applied progressively one upon another, selectively formed to describe tone variations and for various depths of colour.

Dilution of watercolour and acrylic paints by water. Dilution of oilpaints by genuine turpentine, retouch varnish or cellulose thinners.
     



 
  wash and impasto effects   


scumble
term used for an upper layer of paint used to modify the colour of the surface to which it is applied, but unlike a glaze wash the colour pigment is opaque. A scumble must therefore either be thin enough to allow some light to penetrate through to the under painting surface or it must be applied irregularly _ dragged or scuffed _ in such a way that small areas of the under colour show though. By scumbling it is possible to produce effects such as 'optical greys', which cannot be obtained by direct painting.
     



 
  scumble and impasto effects over wash  
    


impasto
as in 'paste'. Thickly applied bulky colour material, as undiluted with solvent, as 'straight from the tube'. Any vehicle, medium or other colour material binder must be of a 'thick' consistancy. Stand oil for oil painting and for acrylic paiinting having P.V.A. water content partly evaporated to thicken. Many artists have used opaque colour impasto for bright highlights.

Used more extensively it makes possible the exploitation of variations of surface texture by perpetuating marks of the brush or other instrument of application as painting knife, scraper blade, rag, finger or pad of hand's palm.
     



 
  impasto and scumble effects   


sgraffitto
or 'graffito' effects made by such as a scraper blade, for scratchings marks through upper level of paint to expose partly or completely the under level colour or colours. Thus the upper surface and lower surface painting scapings modifications forms the desciption.

Some non-figurative artists have developed sgraffito into special kinds of textural effects which may form the predominant motif of their painting.
     



 
    sgraffito effects into impasto and   
    scumble over wash under-painting   




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